Carbohydrate, fat, and protein composition of whole produce

Source: D.A. Schmidt, M.S. Kerley, J.H. Porter, J.L. Dempsey, Zoo Biology Volume 24, Issue 4, P. 359-373
Previously reported values for produce items often reflect only the human edible portion although animals generally eat the entire item.
Produce can comprise a significant proportion of a captive, exotic animal's diet; therefore, nutrient values based on whole items will enable a more accurate diet formulation. Whole produce items, including fruits, vegetables, and leafy green vegetables, were analyzed for dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude protein, fat, ash, pectin, fructan, and free sugar concentrations. The free sugars were typed and quantified. As expected, the produce contained low concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, averaging 13.4% for fruits, 18.8% for vegetables, and 21.5% for leafy green vegetables/other items on a 100% dry matter basis. Produce ranged substantially in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates, protein, fat, and free-sugar concentration. Free-sugar ratios of glucose, fructose, and sucrose varied among items. This information can be used for more accurate formulation of zoological diets.
Zoo biology