Metabolism, interactions, requirements and functions of vitamin E in fish
Vitamin E is a generic term for a group of lipid-soluble molecules, the tocopherols and tocotrienols, which have a function in the protection of organisms against lipid oxidation and which also may have other, ...
more specific biological functions. In fish, as in other vertebrates, α-tocopherol (TOH) is preferentially retained in the body compared to the other tocopherols, probably because of the presence of a tocopherol transfer protein (TTP) in the liver which binds the tocopherols with different affinities and returns them to the circulation. Tocopherols that bind weakly to TTP are to a greater extent excreted in the bile. α-TOH interacts with other nutrients, and the requirement therefore varies with the dietary composition. High levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and low levels of vitamin C, selenium and astaxanthin increase the requirement. This is attributed to the dynamic nature of both lipid oxidation and the antioxidant defence, where oxidized vitamin E is recycled by other antioxidants. The interactions also determine the display of vitamin E deficiency signs, immune responses and effects on flesh quality. Within the mammalian nutrition research community, there is a controversy as to whether vitamin E is primarily an antioxidant or a specific modulator of cell signalling through regulation of enzyme activities and gene expression and some of the hypotheses are presented in this review.
Title: Metabolism, interactions, requirements and functions of vitamin E in fish.
Author: Hamre K.
Source: Aquaculture Nutrition, 2011, volume 17, issue 1